Accommodating individual differences classroom
There is a considerable urgency to develop teaching strategies for all students within English immersion programs and provide appropriate professional development for teachers.
Conducting instruction in English, regardless of whether it is students' native language, makes it critically important to develop strategies for addressing English Language Learner (ELL) students' unique literacy learning needs.Poor reading skills lead to lower overall academic achievement and first grade seems to be a critical developmental period (Chall, 2000; Juel, 1988).Multiple and complex factors contribute to poor reading outcomes in urban schools, including a lack of qualified teachers and students who come from poverty (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).By the later elementary years, those who experience severe reading failure are often given a learning disabilities (LD) label and placed in special education services. Census data, approximately one third of California's population is of Hispanic origin.English language learners (ELLs), or students whose primary language is other than English and are learning English as a second language, often experience particular challenges in developing reading skills in the early grades. In addition, 25% of California's K-12 students are limited-English proficient, and 80% of these students speak Spanish as their primary language (Gandara, 1997).